The Apollo Guidance Computer

The Apollo Guidance Computer Author Frank O'Brien
ISBN-10 9781441908773
Year 2010-06-25
Pages 440
Language en
Publisher Springer Science & Business Media
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The technological marvel that facilitated the Apollo missions to the Moon was the on-board computer. In the 1960s most computers filled an entire room, but the spacecraft’s computer was required to be compact and low power. Although people today find it difficult to accept that it was possible to control a spacecraft using such a ‘primitive’ computer, it nevertheless had capabilities that are advanced even by today’s standards. This is the first book to fully describe the Apollo guidance computer’s architecture, instruction format and programs used by the astronauts. As a comprehensive account, it will span the disciplines of computer science, electrical and aerospace engineering. However, it will also be accessible to the ‘space enthusiast’. In short, the intention is for this to be the definitive account of the Apollo guidance computer. Frank O’Brien’s interest in the Apollo program began as a serious amateur historian. About 12 years ago, he began performing research and writing essays for the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, and the Apollo Flight Journal. Much of this work centered on his primary interests, the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) and the Lunar Module. These Journals are generally considered the canonical online reference on the flights to the Moon. He was then asked to assist the curatorial staff in the creation of the Cradle of Aviation Museum, on Long Island, New York, where he helped prepare the Lunar Module simulator, a LM procedure trainer and an Apollo space suit for display. He regularly lectures on the Apollo computer and related topics to diverse groups, from NASA's computer engineering conferences, the IEEE/ACM, computer festivals and university student groups.

How Apollo Flew to the Moon

How Apollo Flew to the Moon Author W. David Woods
ISBN-10 9781441971791
Year 2011-08-08
Pages 555
Language en
Publisher Springer Science & Business Media
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Stung by the pioneering space successes of the Soviet Union - in particular, Gagarin being the first man in space, the United States gathered the best of its engineers and set itself the goal of reaching the Moon within a decade. In an expanding 2nd edition of How Apollo Flew to the Moon, David Woods tells the exciting story of how the resulting Apollo flights were conducted by following a virtual flight to the Moon and its exploration of the surface. From launch to splashdown, he hitches a ride in the incredible spaceships that took men to another world, exploring each step of the journey and detailing the enormous range of disciplines, techniques, and procedures the Apollo crews had to master. While describing the tremendous technological accomplishment involved, he adds the human dimension by calling on the testimony of the people who were there at the time. He provides a wealth of fascinating and accessible material: the role of the powerful Saturn V, the reasoning behind trajectories, the day-to-day concerns of human and spacecraft health between two worlds, the exploration of the lunar surface and the sheer daring involved in traveling to the Moon and the mid-twentieth century. Given the tremendous success of the original edition of How Apollo Flew to the Moon, the second edition will have a new chapter on surface activities, inspired by reader's comment on Amazon.com. There will also be additional detail in the existing chapters to incorporate all the feedback from the original edition, and will include larger illustrations.

Moon Lander

Moon Lander Author Thomas J. Kelly
ISBN-10 9781588343611
Year 2012-01-11
Pages 304
Language en
Publisher Smithsonian Institution
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Chief engineer Thomas J. Kelly gives a firsthand account of designing, building, testing, and flying the Apollo lunar module. It was, he writes, “an aerospace engineer’s dream job of the century.” Kelly’s account begins with the imaginative process of sketching solutions to a host of technical challenges with an emphasis on safety, reliability, and maintainability. He catalogs numerous test failures, including propulsion-system leaks, ascent-engine instability, stress corrosion of the aluminum alloy parts, and battery problems, as well as their fixes under the ever-present constraints of budget and schedule. He also recaptures the exhilaration of hearing Apollo 11’s Neil Armstrong report that “The Eagle has landed,” and the pride of having inadvertently provided a vital “lifeboat” for the crew of the disabled Apollo 13. From the Hardcover edition.

Digital Apollo

Digital Apollo Author David A. Mindell
ISBN-10 0262266687
Year 2011-09-30
Pages 384
Language en
Publisher MIT Press
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As Apollo 11's Lunar Module descended toward the moon under automatic control, a program alarm in the guidance computer's software nearly caused a mission abort. Neil Armstrong responded by switching off the automatic mode and taking direct control. He stopped monitoring the computer and began flying the spacecraft, relying on skill to land it and earning praise for a triumph of human over machine. In Digital Apollo, engineer-historian David Mindell takes this famous moment as a starting point for an exploration of the relationship between humans and computers in the Apollo program. In each of the six Apollo landings, the astronaut in command seized control from the computer and landed with his hand on the stick. Mindell recounts the story of astronauts' desire to control their spacecraft in parallel with the history of the Apollo Guidance Computer. From the early days of aviation through the birth of spaceflight, test pilots and astronauts sought to be more than "spam in a can" despite the automatic controls, digital computers, and software developed by engineers.Digital Apollo examines the design and execution of each of the six Apollo moon landings, drawing on transcripts and data telemetry from the flights, astronaut interviews, and NASA's extensive archives. Mindell's exploration of how human pilots and automated systems worked together to achieve the ultimate in flight -- a lunar landing -- traces and reframes the debate over the future of humans and automation in space. The results have implications for any venture in which human roles seem threatened by automated systems, whether it is the work at our desktops or the future of exploration.

The Apollo Spacecraft

The Apollo Spacecraft Author Frank O'Brien
ISBN-10 1461410150
Year 2016-09-07
Pages 320
Language en
Publisher Springer
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'The Apollo Spacecraft: Evolution, Engineering, and Flight Operations' is the definitive description of the spacecraft and the technologies used for the journey to the Moon. The spacecraft that eventually landed on the Moon did not spring fully formed because of Kennedy's May 1961 challenge. 'The Apollo Spacecraft' begins by tracing its origins from 1959 when contract bids were already being prepared for a lunar spacecraft. Caught unprepared for a full lunar landing mission, von Braun and other NASA engineers recognized that the spacecraft already under development could never be reconciled with the mission architectures under consideration. Changing the mission architecture and introducing a new spacecraft, the Lunar Module, threw the development of the Apollo CSM into a lurch by requiring significant modifications to the vehicle. The resulting spacecraft, while pushing the limits of the possible, became a complex set of compromises. By tracking the spacecraft's development with its numerous fits and false starts, 'Apollo Spacecrafts' describes how the final mission design and flight operations reflected these early engineering decisions.

The Saturn V F 1 Engine

The Saturn V F 1 Engine Author Anthony Young
ISBN-10 0387096299
Year 2008-11-25
Pages 304
Language en
Publisher Springer Science & Business Media
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The launch of Sputnik in 1957 not only began the space age, it also showed that Soviet rockets were more powerful than American ones. Within months, the US Air Force hired Rocketdyne for a feasibility study of an engine capable of delivering at least 1 million pounds of thrust. Later, NASA ran the development of this F-1 engine in order to use it to power the first stage of the Saturn V rocket that would send Apollo missions to the Moon. It is no exaggeration to say that without the F-1 engine NASA would not have been able to achieve President Kennedy’s 1961 challenge to his nation to land a man on the Moon before the decade was out.

Saturn V Flight Manual

Saturn V Flight Manual Author NASA
ISBN-10 1607965062
Year 2012-09
Pages 252
Language en
Publisher WWW.Snowballpublishing.com
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Designed by Wernher von Braun and Arthur Rudolph at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the Saturn V rocket represents the pinnacle of 20th Century technological achievement. The only launch vehicle in history to transport astronauts beyond Low Earth Orbit, the Saturn V delivered 24 men to the moon. To this day it holds records as the tallest (363 feet), heaviest (nearly 7 million lbs.) and most powerful (over 7.6 million pounds-force of thrust) launch vehicle ever produced. It also remains one of the most reliable, achieving 12 successful launches with one partial failure - the unmanned Apollo 6 which suffered vibration damage on lift-off, resulting in a sub-standard orbit. The Saturn series of rockets resulted from Von Braun's work on the German V-2 and Jupiter series rockets. The Saturn I, a 2-stage liquid-fueled rocket, flew ten times between 1961 and 1965. A uprated version the 1B carried the first crewed Apollo flight into orbit in 1968. The Saturn V, which first flew in 1967, was a three-stage rocket. The first stage, which burned RP-1 and LOX, consisted of five F-1 engines. The second stage used five J-2 engines which burned LOX and liquid hydrogen (LH2). The third stage, based on the second stage of the Saturn 1B, carried a single J-2. The Saturn V could carry up to 262,000 pounds to Low Earth Orbit and more critically, 100,000 pounds to the Moon. Created by NASA as a single-source reference as to the characteristics and functions of the Saturn V, this manual was standard issue to the astronauts of the Apollo and Skylab eras. It contains information about the Saturn V system, range safety and instrumentation, monitoring and control, prelaunch events, and pogo oscillations. It provides a fascinating overview of the rocket that made "one giant leap for mankind" possible.

Virtual Apollo

Virtual Apollo Author Scott P. Sullivan
ISBN-10 1896522947
Year 2002
Pages 128
Language en
Publisher Apogee Books
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In fiction, spaceships are either flying saucers or large, sleek aerodynamic bullets. In the real world, humanity's first true spacecraft was an unpresupposing cylinder, barely large enough to accommodate three astronauts. The Command and Service modules made up the Apollo spacecraft -- an integration of more than 3 million precision components, comprising the most intricate machine ever created by mankind. Each Apollo spacecraft was an amazing amalgamation of state-of-the-art high technology and hand worked craftsmanship. During each Apollo mission attention was focused on the astronauts, with their marvellous spacecraft impinging on the public's awareness only at take-off and splashdown. But during all the days of each mission the Apollo Command and Service Modules performed faithfully and almost flawlessly, 24 hours a day, keeping three men alive and comfortable, maintaining communications, and monitoring themselves, as well as the astronauts, the Earth and the Moon. With this book, for the first time the public can become acquainted with the Apollo spacecraft in detail and learn the story of its design and construction. Full colour drawings in exacting detail provide and inside and out views of the Command and Service Modules complete with details of construction and fabrication. The Apollo spacecraft is the most intricate and exacting machine ever built, and it had to be as near to perfect as it could be made, every time. With over 3 million components, a performance record of 99.9% would still leave 3,000 parts that could fail -- any one of which might result in the deaths of the crew. With the exception of Apollo 13, the spacecraft lived up to expectations on every lunar mission, and even Apollo 13, after a major explosion, managed to circle the Moon and bring its crew home safely. This is a book long overdue; the care and completeness with which it has been created speak for themselves. Thanks to the dedication and hard work that have gone into this book, we can now truly appreciate the magnificent machine that was the Apollo spacecraft and marvel at the achievements of the many thousands of engineers and technicians who stayed on Earth but were on the mission every step of the way.

To Orbit and Back Again

To Orbit and Back Again Author Davide Sivolella
ISBN-10 9781461409830
Year 2013-08-27
Pages 502
Language en
Publisher Springer Science & Business Media
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The Space Shuttle has been the dominant machine in the U.S. space program for thirty years and has generated a great deal of interest among space enthusiasts and engineers. This book enables readers to understand its technical systems in greater depth than they have been able to do so before. The author describes the structures and systems of the Space Shuttle, and then follows a typical mission, explaining how the structures and systems were used in the launch, orbital operations and the return to Earth. Details of how anomalous events were dealt with on individual missions are also provided, as are the recollections of those who built and flew the Shuttle. Many photographs and technical drawings illustrate how the Space Shuttle functions, avoiding the use of complicated technical jargon. The book is divided into two sections: Part 1 describes each subsystem in a technical style, supported by diagrams, technical drawings, and photographs to enable a better understanding of the concepts. Part 2 examines different flight phases, from liftoff to landing. Technical material has been obtained from NASA as well as from other forums and specialists. Author Davide Sivolella is an aerospace engineer with a life-long interest in space and is ideally qualified to interpret technical manuals for a wider audience. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the topic including the evolution of given subsystems, reviewing the different configurations, and focusing on the solutions implemented.

The International Handbook of Space Technology

The International Handbook of Space Technology Author Malcolm Macdonald
ISBN-10 9783642411014
Year 2014-07-08
Pages 731
Language en
Publisher Springer
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This comprehensive handbook provides an overview of space technology and a holistic understanding of the system-of-systems that is a modern spacecraft. With a foreword by Elon Musk, CEO and CTO of SpaceX, and contributions from globally leading agency experts from NASA, ESA, JAXA, and CNES, as well as European and North American academics and industrialists, this handbook, as well as giving an interdisciplinary overview, offers, through individual self-contained chapters, more detailed understanding of specific fields, ranging through: · Launch systems, structures, power, thermal, communications, propulsion, and software, to · entry, descent and landing, ground segment, robotics, and data systems, to · technology management, legal and regulatory issues, and project management. This handbook is an equally invaluable asset to those on a career path towards the space industry as it is to those already within the industry.

Technical traders guide to computer analysis of the futures market

Technical traders guide to computer analysis of the futures market Author Charles LeBeau
ISBN-10 UOM:49015001395442
Year 1992
Pages 234
Language en
Publisher McGraw-Hill
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With the low cost of modern computer hardware and software combined with the communication of price data via satellite, a new and rapidly expanding market of traders using computers has developed. This essential book bridges the gap between the basic instruction that comes with software programs and what a trader actually needs to know to develop and text profitable futures trading system. With specific information on how to set up and use computer-generated technical studies of the most popular indicators, the book includes: How to build a trading system tailored to the reader's specific need; Practical instruction on how to display and analyze technical information; Advice for developing well disciplined money management and risk control strategies; techniques for monitoring a trading system to detect if something has gone wrong before major losses occur.

The ZX Spectrum ULA

The ZX Spectrum ULA Author Chris Smith
ISBN-10 0956507107
Year 2010
Pages 324
Language en
Publisher
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This book takes the reader through the design and implementation of the Sinclair ZX Spectrum's custom chip, revealing for the first time the decisions behind its design and its hidden secrets. By using it as case study, the techniques required to design an 8-bit microcomputer are explained, along with comprehensive details of the Ferranti ULA manufacturing process. If you have ever wanted to design your own computer or wondered what was behind the most successful microcomputer of the 1980s, then this is the book for you. For the first time, the inner working of the Sinclair ZX Spectrum's custom chip and heart of the computer, the Ferranti ULA, is exposed in minute detail. Packed with over 140 illustrations and circuit diagrams, this book takes the reader through the cutting edge technology that was the Ferranti ULA and the design of the ZX Spectrum home computer, illustrating the principles and techniques involved in creating a cost effective computer that required nothing more than a television set and a cassette recorder. The ZX Spectrum ULA is an essential read for the electronics hobbyist, student or electronic engineer wishing to design their own retro-style microcomputer or anyone with an interest in historical micro-electronic and digital design. All topics are explained in simple yet precise terms, building on their careful introduction towards the full functionality presented by the Sinclair computer. Some of the topics covered are: The architecture of the standard microcomputer, Ferranti and their ULA, manufacturing process and structure, The functional layout of the ZX Spectrum ULA, Video display generation, Memory contention and timing, ZX Spectrum design bugs such as "The Snow Effect," Hidden features, ULA version differences.

To Mars and Beyond Fast

To Mars and Beyond  Fast Author Franklin Chang Díaz
ISBN-10 9783319229188
Year 2017-07-06
Pages 201
Language en
Publisher Springer
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As advanced in-space propulsion moves from science fiction to reality, the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket, or VASIMR® engine, is a leading contender for making 'Mars in a month' a possibility. A paradigm shift in space transportation, this book is an in-depth and compelling story co-written by its inventor. It traces the riveting history of the development of the VASIMR® engine. This landmark technology is grounded in concepts of advanced plasma physics. It cross-pollinates ideas and disciplines to offer a new, practical, and sustainable solution for in-space transportation beyond low Earth orbit in the decades to come. Invented by the co-holder of the world’s spaceflight record, astronaut Franklin Chang Díaz, the VASIMR® engine is developed by Ad Astra Rocket Company in its Texas facilities with NASA as part of the NextSTEP VASIMR® partnership. With adequate funding, the first spaceflight of the VASIMR® engine is imminent. Plasma rockets feature exhaust velocities far above those achievable by conventional chemical rockets. The VASIMR® engine is the most advanced high-power plasma propulsion system operating in the world today and it may place long, fast interplanetary journeys withinour reach in the near future.

Yearbook on Space Policy 2009 2010

Yearbook on Space Policy 2009 2010 Author Kai-Uwe Schrogl
ISBN-10 9783709109427
Year 2011-12-30
Pages 358
Language en
Publisher Springer Science & Business Media
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The Yearbook on Space Policy is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The Yearbook on Space Policy is edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI) based in Vienna, Austria. It combines in-house research and contributions of members of the European Space Policy Research and Academic Network (ESPRAN), coordinated by ESPI. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies, industry professionals, as well as the service sectors, researchers and scientists and the interested public.

The International Handbook of Space Technology

The International Handbook of Space Technology Author Malcolm Macdonald
ISBN-10 9783642411014
Year 2014-07-08
Pages 731
Language en
Publisher Springer
DOWNLOAD NOW READ ONLINE

This comprehensive handbook provides an overview of space technology and a holistic understanding of the system-of-systems that is a modern spacecraft. With a foreword by Elon Musk, CEO and CTO of SpaceX, and contributions from globally leading agency experts from NASA, ESA, JAXA, and CNES, as well as European and North American academics and industrialists, this handbook, as well as giving an interdisciplinary overview, offers, through individual self-contained chapters, more detailed understanding of specific fields, ranging through: · Launch systems, structures, power, thermal, communications, propulsion, and software, to · entry, descent and landing, ground segment, robotics, and data systems, to · technology management, legal and regulatory issues, and project management. This handbook is an equally invaluable asset to those on a career path towards the space industry as it is to those already within the industry.